BackgroundTo assess the time to first on-study vascular thromboembolic events (VTEs) of clopidogrel (CL) or beraprost sodium (BPS) in Chinese population with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) treated with arteriovenous fistula (AVF) surgery.MethodsFrom Jan 2009 to May 2015, 346 ESRD cases suffering an AVF surgery and undergoing oral administration of 75 mg CL (initial dose of 300 mg), 1 time/day, for 4 weeks or 40 μg BPS, 3 times/day, for 4 weeks were retrospectively assessed. The primary outcome was time to first on-study VTE.ResultsIn total, 222 ESRD cases (CL, n = 112; BPS, n = 110) were assessed, with a median follow-up time of 38.1 months (range, 37–40 months). The mean time to first on-study VTE was 1.2 weeks (0.5–2.3) and 1.8 weeks (1.2–3.8) for CL and BPS, respectively (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.16–1.45; P = 0.00). An increased incidence of VTEs was found during the 1th-month follow-up, with rates of 14.2 and 5.5% for CL and BPS, respectively (P = 0.03). The difference persisted over time, with rates of 24.1 and 11.8% at final follow-up, respectively (P = 0.02).ConclusionCL with an increased risk of VTEs tended to have a VTE within the 1st month after cessation compared with BPS.