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Efficacy of Oral Vaccine against Classical Swine Fever in Wild Boar and Estimation of the Disease Dynamics in the Quantitative Approach.

Authors
  • Bazarragchaa, Enkhbold1
  • Isoda, Norikazu1, 2
  • Kim, Taksoo1
  • Tetsuo, Madoka1
  • Ito, Satoshi2
  • Matsuno, Keita2, 3
  • Sakoda, Yoshihiro1, 3
  • 1 Laboratory of Microbiology, Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita 18, Nishi 9, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 060-0818, Hokkaido, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 2 Unit of Risk Analysis and Management, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Kita 20, Nishi 10, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 001-0020, Hokkaido, Japan. , (Japan)
  • 3 International Collaboration Unit, Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Kita 20, Nishi 10, Kita-Ku, Sapporo 001-0020, Hokkaido, Japan. , (Japan)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Viruses
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Feb 20, 2021
Volume
13
Issue
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/v13020319
PMID: 33672749
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) in the wild boar population has been spreading in Japan, alongside outbreaks on pigs, since classical swine fever (CSF) reemerged in September 2018. The vaccination using oral bait vaccine was initially implemented in Gifu prefecture in March 2019. In the present study, antibodies against CSFV in wild boar were assessed in 1443 captured and dead wild boars in Gifu prefecture. After the implementation of oral vaccination, the increase of the proportion of seropositive animals and their titer in wild boars were confirmed. Quantitative analysis of antigen and antibodies against CSFV in wild boar implies potential disease diversity in the wild boar population. Animals with status in high virus replication (Ct < 30) and non- or low-immune response were confirmed and were sustained at a certain level after initial oral vaccination. Through continuous vaccination periods, the increase of seroprevalence among wild boar and the decrease of CSFV-positive animals were observed. The epidemiological analysis based on the quantitative virological outcomes could provide more information on the efficacy of oral vaccination and dynamics of CSF in the wild boar population, which will help to improve the implementation of control measures for CSF in countries such as Japan and neighboring countries.

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