By means of electron microscopy and observational histological techniques, using a similar experimental model, regeneration of the striated and smooth muscle tissues of the esophagus has been studied in rats. During early periods after lesion in both muscle tissues destructive-necrotic changes develop. Beginning from the 2nd-3d days regeneration processes are observed. The course and periodicity of the regenerative processes are specific for the types of the muscle tissues studied. Each of the muscle tissues of the esophagus has its own source of regeneration. For the smooth muscles those are myoblasts, that convert into smooth myocytes, for the striated ones--myosatellites, which after activation get out of the muscle fiber. During the restorative process of the muscular membrane no tissue interconnections are observed. This also proves certain specificity of the striated and smooth muscle tissues of the esophagus.