In order to validate a rodent biochemical model of delayed neurotoxicity of organophosphates (OP) inhibition of rat and hen brain neurotoxic esterase (NTE) by some dichlorovinyl phosphates and phosphonates was studied in vitro and in vivo. It was shown that compounds investigated exhibited the similar inhibitory potency to NTE from both species in vitro, in addition rat and hen NTE showed the same sensitivity to variation of the structure of OP inhibitors. A good correlation was found between pI50 estimated with enzymes from rat and hen trains: r2 = 0.951, n = 18, p < or = 0.05. NTE activities were also measured in rat and hen brains after acute administration of various dosages of potent axonopathic compound dipropyldichlorovinyl phosphate. The results obtained indicate that difference in species susceptibility to neurotoxic action of OP, in particular the absence of ataxia in rats, is not caused by difference in target enzyme sensitivity to axonopathic organophosphates.