Wheat is one of the most highly cultivated cereals in the world. Like other cultivated crops, wheat production is significantly affected by abiotic stresses such as drought. Multiple wheat varieties suitable for different geographical regions of the world have been developed that are adapted to different environmental conditions; however, the molecular basis of such adaptations remains unknown in most cases. We have compared the quantitative proteomics profile of the roots of two different wheat varieties, Nesser (drought-tolerant) and Opata (drought-sensitive), in the absence and presence of abscisic acid (ABA, as a proxy for drought). A labeling LC-based quantitative proteomics approach using iTRAQ was applied to elucidate the changes in protein abundance levels. Quantitative differences in protein levels were analyzed for the evaluation of inherent differences between the two varieties as well as the overall and variety-specific effect of ABA on the root proteome. This study reveals the most elaborate ABA-responsive root proteome identified to date in wheat. A large number of proteins exhibited inherently different expression levels between Nesser and Opata. Additionally, significantly higher numbers of proteins were ABA-responsive in Nesser roots compared with Opata roots. Furthermore, several proteins showed variety-specific regulation by ABA, suggesting their role in drought adaptation.