CoMoO4 materials were prepared through a simple hydrothermal method and developed as highly efficient peroxidase mimics for colorimetric determination of H2O2. Based on the different experimental conditions in the synthesis process, the CoMoO4 materials present distinct morphologies, structures, surface properties, and peroxidase mimetic activities. Among them, CoMoO4 nanobelts (NBs) display the best intrinsic peroxidase mimetic abilities due to the high-energy (100) facet exposed, more Co active sites at (100) facet, more negative potential, and larger specific surface area. It can efficiently catalyze the oxidation of 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2 to generate a blue oxide. In view of the excellent peroxidase mimetic catalytic activity of CoMoO4 NBs, a rapid, convenient, and ultrasensitive method was successfully established for the visual and colorimetric determination of H2O2. The method exhibits good selectivity, practicability, stability, and reusability, and has a detection limit of 0.27 μM. The peroxidase mimetic catalytic mechanism of CoMoO4 NBs was illustrated according to the kinetic and active species trapping experiments. The method has a good potential for rapid and sensitive determination of H2O2 for biomedical analysis. Graphical abstractSchematic presentation of the process of CoMoO4 nanobelts catalyzing the oxidation of peroxidase substrate 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2 to generate a typical blue color, which can be applied in rapid and ultrasensitive detection of H2O2 visually.