Ultrasound (US) examination of the common carotid artery was compared with a through-plane magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence to validate a recently proposed technique for 3-D US vector flow imaging. Data from the first volunteer examined were used as the training set, before volume flow and peak velocities were calculated for the remaining eight volunteers. Peak systolic velocities (PSVs) and volume flow obtained with 3-D US were, on average, 34% higher and 24% lower than those obtained with MRI, respectively. A high correlation was observed for PSV (r = 0.79), whereas a lower correlation was observed for volume flow (r = 0.43). The overall standard deviations were ±5.7% and ±5.7% for volume flow and PSV with 3-D US, compared with ±2.7% and ±3.2% for MRI. Finally, the data were re-processed with a change in the parameter settings for the echo-canceling filter to investigate its influence on overall performance. PSV was less affected by the re-processing, whereas the difference in volume flow between 3-D vector flow imaging and MRI was reduced to -9%, and with an improved overall standard deviation of ±4.7%. The results illustrate the feasibility of using 3-D US for precise and angle-independent volume flow and PSV estimation in vivo. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.