Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal primary malignant brain tumor in adults with poor survival due to acquired therapeutic resistance and rapid recurrence. Currently, the standard clinical strategy for glioma includes maximum surgical resection, radiotherapy, and temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy; however, the median survival of patients with GBM remains poor despite these comprehensive therapies. Therefore, the identification of new prognostic biomarkers is urgently needed to evaluate the malignancy and long-term outcome of glioma. To further investigate prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for GBM. In this study, we identified tribbles pseudokinase 2 (TRIB2) as one of the genes that is most correlated with pathological classification, radioresistance, and TMZ resistance in glioma. Additionally, the expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 (MAP3K1) showed a strong correlation with TRIB2. Moreover, a combined increase in TRIB2 and MAP3K1 was observed in GBM and indicated a poor prognosis of patients with glioma. Finally, enriched TRIB2 expression and MAP3K1 expression were shown to be associated with resistance to TMZ and radiotherapy. Combined elevation of TRIB2 and MAP3K1 could be novel prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets to evaluate the malignancy and long-term outcomes of GBM. © 2019 The Authors. CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.