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Combined effects of age and BMI are related to altered cortical thickness in adolescence and adulthood.

Authors
  • Westwater, Margaret L1
  • Vilar-López, Raquel2
  • Ziauddeen, Hisham3
  • Verdejo-García, Antonio4
  • Fletcher, Paul C3
  • 1 Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Herchel Smith Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK. Electronic address: [email protected]
  • 2 Mind, Brain and Behavior Research Center, Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 3 Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, Herchel Smith Building, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0SZ, UK; Wellcome Trust MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK; Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Foundation Trust, Cambridge, CB21 5EF, UK.
  • 4 School of Psychological Sciences and Monash Institute of Cognitive and Clinical Neurosciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. , (Australia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Developmental cognitive neuroscience
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2019
Volume
40
Pages
100728–100728
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.dcn.2019.100728
PMID: 31751856
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Overweight and obesity are associated with functional and structural alterations in the brain, but how these associations change across critical developmental periods remains unknown. Here, we examined the relationship between age, body mass index (BMI) and cortical thickness (CT) in healthy adolescents (n = 70; 14-19 y) and adults (n = 75; 25-45 y). We also examined the relationship between adiposity, impulsivity, measured by delay discounting (DD), and CT of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region key to impulse control. A significant age-by-BMI interaction was observed in both adolescents and adults; however, the direction of this relationship differed between age groups. In adolescents, increased age-adjusted BMI Z-score attenuated age-related CT reductions globally and in frontal, temporal and occipital regions. In adults, increased BMI augmented age-related CT reductions, both globally and in bilateral parietal cortex. Although DD was unrelated to adiposity in both groups, increased DD and adiposity were both associated with reduced IFG thickness in adolescents and adults. Our findings suggest that the known age effects on CT in adolescence and adulthood are moderated by adiposity. The association between weight, cortical development and its functional implications would suggest that future studies of adolescent and adult brain development take adiposity into account. Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

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