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The Combined Effect of Pressure and Temperature on Kefir Production—A Case Study of Food Fermentation in Unconventional Conditions

Authors
  • Ribeiro, Ana C.1
  • Lemos, Álvaro T.1
  • Lopes, Rita P.1
  • Mota, Maria J.1
  • Inácio, Rita S.1, 2
  • Gomes, Ana M. P.2
  • Sousa, Sérgio2
  • Delgadillo, Ivonne1
  • Saraiva, Jorge A.1
  • 1 (I.D.)
  • 2 (S.S.)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Foods
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Aug 18, 2020
Volume
9
Issue
8
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/foods9081133
PMID: 32824663
PMCID: PMC7466173
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Food fermentation under pressure has been studied in recent years as a way to produce foods with novel properties. The purpose of this work was to study kefir production under pressure (7–50 MPa) at different temperatures (17–32 °C), as a case study of unconventional food fermentation. The fermentation time to produce kefir was similar at all temperatures (17, 25, and 32 °C) up to 15 MPa, compared to atmospheric pressure. At 50 MPa, the fermentation rate was slower, but the difference was reduced as temperature increased. During fermentation, lactic and acetic acid concentration increased while citric acid decreased. The positive activation volumes (Va) obtained indicate that pressure decreased the fermentation rate, while the temperature rise led to the attenuation of the pressure effect (lower Va). On the other hand, higher activation energies (Ea) were observed with pressure increase, indicating that fermentation became more sensitive to temperature. The condition that resulted in a faster fermentation, higher titratable acidity, and higher concentration of lactic acid was 15 MPa/32 °C. As the authors are aware, this is the second work in the literature to study the combined effect of pressure and temperature on a fermentative process.

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