A 46-year-old man accepted for heart transplantation due to persistent cardiac failure from dilated cardiomyopathy underwent a transplant in Germany on July 13, 1995. The donor heart was suspected of coronary artery disease at explantation, but he could wait no longer because of his rapidly deteriorating hemodynamics. Postoperative coronary angiography revealed 25% stenosis of the left descending artery. He showed several episodes of minimal or moderate rejection postoperatively, and coronary angiography 15 months postoperatively showed rapidly accelerated cardiac allograft vasculopathy demonstrating triple vessel disease with multiple lesions. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty was successful on 2 coronary vessels, but immediately recurrent stenosis and new lesions involving the left main trunk occurred 6 weeks thereafter. Since he was financially unable to afford a second heart transplantation, quadruple coronary artery bypass grafting was conducted October 25, 1996. A biventricular assist device was used when he could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. He died of multiple organ failure 3 days after surgery.