Interferon alpha (IFN-α) has been used as a maintenance therapy after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) for multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, we combined GM-CSF with IFN-α in order to improve IFN tolerance in post-ASCT myeloma patients. Primary aims were to evaluate myelotoxicity and effectiveness of this maintenance therapy. The treatment included 4 × 10(6) units of IFN-α and 125 μg/m(2) of GM-CSF given three times a week for twelve months. Twenty seven patients were enrolled within 120 days after ASCT. One patient discontinued treatment due to thrombocytopenia and seven others were taken off study due to flu-like symptoms and/or increase in liver enzymes. With a median follow-up of 45.5 months, the median overall survival was not reached while the median progression-free survival was 28 months. Eleven patients (42%) have remained in very good partial remission or complete remission since ASCT. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that maintenance with GM-CSF and IFN-α is safe and effective.