Abstract : The present dissertation aims to understand the configuration of the ethnic identities of the indigenous people Kaingang, Guarani and Xetá, who inhabit the TI São Jerônimo, located in the northern part of the state of Paraná. In order to do so, we sought to understand the processes of territorialization that these populations experienced during the colonial period. We mainly focused on the policies of villages promoted by religious orders during the imperial period. We also analyzed governmental policies during the republic period, which aimed at grouping different ethnic groups in the same place, as a strategy of control over them, as well as a mode of expropriation of their territorial bases. However, this process also resulted in strong ties between the different groups, made evident by the presence of interethnic marriages among different indigenous ethnicities. Subsequently, this created political alliances, resulting in multiple, highly complex identities that need to be understood in their specific historical contexts. In this context, this investigation aimed to understand the issues related to the configuration of these groups and their respective ethnic identities, as well as the maintenance of the different ethnic references. In this sense, this dissertation will deal with these situations observed among the indigenous people of the TI São Jerônimo, trying to understand their identities, the notion or pertaining, as well as the notions of ethnic "purity" and "mixture" present in their current discourses.