Our objective was to investigate prevalence and Doppler characteristics of penile cavernosal-spongiosal communications (CSC). These vessels are either anastomoses connecting the cavernosal arteries with the urethral arterial network or afferent vessels to the corpus spongiosum. Sixty-one consecutive patients underwent penile color Doppler US. Waveform changes in CSC were evaluated in comparison with changes in the cavernosal artery. Eighteen of 61 patients had normal erection, 17 of 61 had arterial insufficiency, and 26 of 61 had veno-occlusive dysfunction. Resistance index (RI) in CSC was significantly lower than in cavernosal arteries in all patients and increased during phases 1-2 (positive diastolic flow). Peak systolic velocity (PSV) in CSC was significantly higher in the patients with veno-occlusive dysfunction. During cavernosal phase 4 (diastolic flow reversal) CSC of patients with normal erection or with arterial insufficiency disappeared, underwent markedly reduced diastolic flow, or had systolic flow inversion. Conversely, low resistance flow was appreciable in CSC of patients with veno-occlusive dysfunction who reached phase 4. During phase 5 (systolic peak reduction) all CSC disappeared. Color Doppler US allows evaluation of CSC both in patients with normal and impaired erection.