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Collection of cerebrospinal fluid in 50 adult healthy donkeys ( Equus asinus ): clinical complications, and cytological and biochemical constituents

  • Abdelhakiem, Mohammed A. H.1
  • Hussein, Hussein Awad1
  • 1 Assiut University,
Published Article
BMC Veterinary Research
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Sep 09, 2021
DOI: 10.1186/s12917-021-03007-4
PMID: 34503510
PMCID: PMC8428111
PubMed Central
  • Research


Background Diseases of the central nervous system are a well-recognized cause of morbidity and mortality in equine. Collection and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) give information about the type and stage of degenerative and inflammatory diseases in central nervous system (CNS). The present research aimed to assess the clinical complications of CSF collections and to establish range values of cytological and biochemical parameters of CSF in adult healthy donkeys ( Equus asinus ). The CSF samples were collected from fifty healthy donkeys at the lumbosacral (LS) and atlanto-occipital (AO) sites. Results Hypothermia, tachycardia, ataxia and recumbency may develop post-puncture. Erythrocytes were noticed in 35 of 50 CSF samples. Total nucleated cell counts ranged from 0 to 6 cells/μL, and lymphocytes predominated the cells (61%). The concentration of glucose (1.2 to 5.3 mmol/L) was lower than that of serum ( P < 0.05). The CSF sodium concentration (123 to 160 mmol/L) was approximately like that of serum, but potassium (1.5–3 mmol/L) was lower than that of serum ( P < 0.01). Urea concentrations (1.1–2.9 mmol/L) were markedly lower than serum ( P < 0.001). Concentrations of CSF total proteins, and albumin ranged from 0.1 to 0.6 g/dL, and from 0.002 to 0.013 g/dL, respectively. The albumin quotient ranged from 0.06 to 0.56. Conclusions Transient hypothermia, tachycardia, ataxia and recumbency may develop as clinical complications of CSF puncture procedures. The collection site has no impact on the constituents in CSF. Furthermore, this study presented the range values for normal cytological and biochemical constituents of CSF in donkeys ( Equus asinus ) that can provide a basis in comparison when evaluating CSF from donkeys with neurologic diseases.

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