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Co-inoculation of Arizona cypress with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and Pseudomonas fluorescens under fuel pollution

Authors
  • Aalipour, Hamed
  • Nikbakht, Ali
  • Etemadi, Nematollah
Type
Published Article
Journal
Mycorrhiza
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Publication Date
Mar 21, 2019
Volume
29
Issue
3
Pages
277–289
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s00572-019-00888-0
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

Air pollution in metropolitan areas of Iran has negatively impacted establishment, growth, and development of many woody plant species, threatening the health of urban forest species. This study was designed to investigate the effects of artificial inoculation of seedlings of a major urban forest tree, Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica Greene) with beneficial microorganisms under the stress of air pollution caused by exhaust emissions from fuel pollutants (FP). We conducted this research as a completely randomized design in a form of split-factorial with three factors comprising arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation with Rhizophagus irregularis or Funneliformis mosseae or a mixture of both species, bacterial inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens and non-inoculated controls, and two levels of FP (fuel pollutants and non-fuel pollutants) using three replications of each treatment. Fuel pollutants significantly reduced root colonization, shoot and root dry weight, nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, and Fe), glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP), and chlorophyll concentration, while increasing proline content, enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in Arizona cypress seedlings. Nevertheless, adverse effects of FP in the inoculated plants (especially AMF plants) were less than in the non-inoculated plants. Inoculations of AMF especially the mixture of both mycorrhizal species effectively alleviated the negative effects of FP on Arizona cypress seedlings. This promising effect was related to increased GRSP content in the media which improved concentrations of N, P, and Fe in plants, enhanced chlorophyll concentration, and elevated enzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione peroxidase which resulted in increased dry mass of the plants under air pollution stress.

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