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Cognitive reserve is associated with the functional organization of the brain in healthy aging: a MEG study.

Authors
  • López, María E
  • Aurtenetxe, Sara
  • Pereda, Ernesto
  • Cuesta, Pablo
  • Castellanos, Nazareth P
  • Bruña, Ricardo
  • Niso, Guiomar
  • Maestú, Fernando
  • Bajo, Ricardo
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Publisher
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2014
Volume
6
Pages
125–125
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2014.00125
PMID: 24982632
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

The proportion of elderly people in the population has increased rapidly in the last century and consequently "healthy aging" is expected to become a critical area of research in neuroscience. Evidence reveals how healthy aging depends on three main behavioral factors: social lifestyle, cognitive activity, and physical activity. In this study, we focused on the role of cognitive activity, concentrating specifically on educational and occupational attainment factors, which were considered two of the main pillars of cognitive reserve (CR). Twenty-one subjects with similar rates of social lifestyle, physical and cognitive activity were selected from a sample of 55 healthy adults. These subjects were divided into two groups according to their level of CR; one group comprised subjects with high CR (9 members) and the other one contained those with low CR (12 members). To evaluate the cortical brain connectivity network, all participants were recorded by Magnetoencephalography (MEG) while they performed a memory task (modified version of the Sternberg's Task). We then applied two algorithms [Phase Locking Value (PLV) and Phase Lag Index (PLI)] to study the dynamics of functional connectivity. In response to the same task, the subjects with lower CR presented higher functional connectivity than those with higher CR. These results may indicate that participants with low CR needed a greater "effort" than those with high CR to achieve the same level of cognitive performance. Therefore, we conclude that CR contributes to the modulation of the functional connectivity patterns of the aging brain.

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