Background The current study sets out to explore the influence of a well-studied cognitive control training (CCT) procedure on cognitive control processes, emotion regulation (ER) and self-reported affect in older adults. Methods Thirty-nine healthy older adults (aged 64-78) participated in a randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial. Twenty-one of these participants performed 10 sessions of CCT that loads on working memory and sustained attention, the other eighteen performed 10 sessions of an active placebo training. Results CCT beneficially impacted task-specific transfer, but the training did not result in transfer to an unrelated cognitive control task (Stroop task). In addition, no effects were observed on ER processes or affect changes immediately following training, nor at 6 weeks follow-up. Conclusion At this point, the CCT seems not suitable to enhance cognitive resilience factors in older non-depressed individuals. However, there is need for more research on possible moderators of the effects, as well as larger-scale studies with longer follow-up measurements.