In this study we investigated the ability of zebrafish to discriminate visual signs and associate them with a reward in an associative-learning protocol including distractors. Moreover, we studied the effects of caffeine on animal performance in the task. After being trained to associate a specific image pattern with a reward (food) in the presence of other, distractor images, the fish were challenged to locate the exact cue associated with the reward. The distractors were same-colored pattern images similar to the target. Both the target and distractors were continually moved around the tank. Fish were exposed to three caffeine concentrations for 14 days: 0 mg/L (control, n = 12), 10 mg/L (n = 14), and 50 mg/L (n = 14). Zebrafish spent most of the time close to the target (where the reward was offered) under the effects of 0 and 10 mg/L caffeine, and the shortest latency to reach the target was observed for the 10-mg/L caffeine group. Both caffeine treatments (10 and 50 mg/L) increased the average speed and distance traveled when compared to the control group. This study confirms previous results showing that zebrafish demonstrate conditioned learning ability; however, low-dose caffeine exposure seems to favor visual cue discrimination and to increase zebrafish performance in a multicue discrimination task, in which primarily focus and attention are required in order to obtain the reward.