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Codon Bias as a Means to Fine-Tune Gene Expression.

Authors
  • Quax, Tessa E F
  • Claassens, Nico J
  • Söll, Dieter
  • van der Oost, John
Type
Published Article
Journal
Molecular Cell
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Jul 16, 2015
Volume
59
Issue
2
Pages
149–161
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.molcel.2015.05.035
PMID: 26186290
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The redundancy of the genetic code implies that most amino acids are encoded by multiple synonymous codons. In all domains of life, a biased frequency of synonymous codons is observed at the genome level, in functionally related genes (e.g., in operons), and within single genes. Other codon bias variants include biased codon pairs and codon co-occurrence. Although translation initiation is the key step in protein synthesis, it is generally accepted that codon bias contributes to translation efficiency by tuning the elongation rate of the process. Moreover, codon bias plays an important role in controlling a multitude of cellular processes, ranging from differential protein production to protein folding. Here we review currently known types of codon bias and how they may influence translation. We discuss how understanding the principles of codon bias and translation can contribute to improved protein production and developments in synthetic biology.

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