The clinical signs and laboratory changes of brodifacoum (BDF) intoxicated dogs and their response to vitamin K1 treatment were examined. Brodifacoum, a second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide, was fed to four dogs for 3 consecutive days producing a cumulative dose of 1.1 mg BDF/kg body weight. Clinical observations of the animals were made daily throughout the study. Monitored laboratory parameters included: one-stage prothrombin time (OSPT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), activated coagulation time (ACT), complete blood counts, thrombocyte counts, and serum chemistry values. Response to vitamin K1 therapy was evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests. Serum BDF concentrations were monitored. Inappetence and hemorrhagic tendencies were exhibited by day 5 postrodenticide exposure. One-stage prothrombin time, APTT, and ACT were 25% greater than time zero values at 24, 24, and 72 hours postdosing, respectively. All laboratory parameters returned to normal within 48 hours of initiating vitamin K1 therapy (0.83 mg/kg orally, TID for 5 days). Serum brodifacoum concentrations were highest (1065-1215 ng/mL) during the 3 days after BDF dosing and were detectable (3.0-7.5 ng/mL) until day 24 postexposure. A mean BDF elimination half-life of 6 +/- 4 days was observed.