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A cluster-randomized trial of a brief multi-component intervention to improve tobacco outcomes in substance use treatment

  • Guydish, Joseph
  • McCuistian, Caravella
  • Hosakote, Sindhushree
  • Le, Thao
  • Masson, Carmen L
  • Campbell, Barbara K
  • Delucchi, Kevin
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2023
eScholarship - University of California
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BackgroundSmoking prevalence is high among people in substance use disorder (SUD) treatment, and program interventions to address smoking are often complex and lengthy. This cluster-randomized trial tested whether a brief multi-component intervention impacted tobacco outcomes among staff and clients.MethodsSeven SUD treatment programs were randomly assigned to the multi-component intervention or to waitlist control. The 6-month intervention included a leadership motivation assessment, program incentives, 4 staff training sessions and a leadership learning community session. Survey data were collected from staff and clients at pre- and post-intervention. Outcomes were first compared across condition (intervention vs waitlist control), and then examined pre- to post-intervention with condition collapsed.ResultsStaff in the intervention (n = 48) and control conditions (n = 26) did not differ at post-intervention on smoking prevalence, self-efficacy to help clients quit, or practices used to help clients quit smoking. Intervention clients (n = 113) did not differ from controls (n = 61) in smoking prevalence or receipt of tobacco services. Pre-post comparisons collapsed across condition showed a decrease in client and staff smoking prevalence, which could not be attributed to the intervention, and a decrease in client receipt of cessation medication.ConclusionThe brief multi-component intervention did not support changes in smoking prevalence or in tobacco-related services received by clients. Other intervention features are needed to reduce smoking among SUD clients.Trial registrationRandomization occurred at the program level and outcomes measured are program-level measures. Accordingly, the trial is not registered.

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