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A closed-loop optogenetic platform

  • Firfilionis, D
  • Hutchings, F
  • Tamadoni, R
  • Walsh, D
  • Turnbull, M
  • Escobedo-Cousin, E
  • Bailey, RG
  • Gausden, J
  • Patel, A
  • Haci, D
  • Liu, Y
  • LeBeau, FEN
  • Trevelyan, A
  • Constandinou, TG
  • O'Neill, A
  • Kaiser, M
  • Degenaar, P
  • Jackson, A
Publication Date
Aug 16, 2021
UPCommons. Portal del coneixement obert de la UPC
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Neuromodulation is an established treatment for numerous neurological conditions, but to expand the therapeutic scope there is a need to improve the spatial, temporal and cell-type specificity of stimulation. Optogenetics is a promising area of current research, enabling optical stimulation of genetically-defined cell types without interfering with concurrent electrical recording for closed-loop control of neural activity. We are developing an open-source system to provide a platform for closed-loop optogenetic neuromodulation, incorporating custom integrated circuitry for recording and stimulation, real-time closed-loop algorithms running on a microcontroller and experimental control via a PC interface. We include commercial components to validate performance, with the ultimate aim of translating this approach to humans. In the meantime our system is flexible and expandable for use in a variety of preclinical neuroscientific applications. The platform consists of a Controlling Abnormal Network Dynamics using Optogenetics (CANDO) Control System (CS) that interfaces with up to four CANDO headstages responsible for electrical recording and optical stimulation through custom CANDO LED optrodes. Control of the hardware, inbuilt algorithms and data acquisition is enabled via the CANDO GUI (Graphical User Interface). Here we describe the design and implementation of this system, and demonstrate how it can be used to modulate neuronal oscillations in vitro and in vivo.

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