DNA fragments encoding streptococcal NADH peroxidase (NPXase) have been amplified, cloned and sequenced from the genome of Streptococcus (Enterococcus) faecalis 10C1 (ATCC 11700). The NPXase gene (npr) comprises 1341 base-pairs and is preceded by a typical ribosome binding site. Upstream from the structural gene, putative -10 and -35 promoter regions have been identified, as has a possible factor-independent terminator that occurs in 3'-flanking sequences. The deduced relative molecular mass (Mr = 49,551), amino acid composition and isoelectric point of NPXase are in good agreement with previous values obtained with the purified enzyme. In addition, three sequenced peptides totaling approximately 20% of the protein were located in the npr gene product. From the sequencing data the deduced NPXase sequence shares low but significant homology with the flavoprotein disulfide reductase class of enzymes ranging from 21% for glutathione reductase (GRase) to 28% for thioredoxin reductase. Alignment of NPXase to Escherichia coli GRase allowed the identification of three previously reported fingerprints for the FAD, NADP+ and central domains of GRase, in the peroxidase sequence. In addition, Cys42 of NPXase, which is present as an unusual stabilized cysteine-sulfenic acid in the oxidized enzyme, aligns favorably with the charge-transfer cysteine in E. coli GRase, and both residues closely follow FAD-binding folds found near their respective amino termini. Such sequence characteristics can also be seen in mercuric reductase, lipoamide dehydrogenase and trypanothione reductase, suggesting that all these enzymes may have originally diverged from a common ancestor. Sequences that are on average 50% identical with three previously reported peptides of the related streptococcal NADH oxidase were also identified in the NPXase primary structure, suggesting a strong similarity between these flavoenzymes. Using the E. coli phage T7 expression system the npr gene has now been overexpressed in an E. coli genetic background. The resultant overexpressing clone produced a recombinant NPXase that was catalytically active and immunoreactive to NPXase antisera.