5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is formed by the enzyme ALA synthase (ALAS). However, the fidelity of ALAS gene among species is low. The ALAS gene of photosynthetic bacteria Rhodoblastus acidophilus was cloned from its genomic DNA by conventional PCR and Veterette PCR and further sequenced. The identity of ALAS gene among photosynthetic bacteria species is from 64.0% to 95.1% according to phylogenic analysis. Furthermore, the ALAS gene was subcloned into an expression vector pQE30. For the overproduction of ALA, the recombinant ALAS was overexpressed in Escherichia coli strains JM109, M15 and BL21 (DE3), respectively. The expected 44kD protein was detected by SDS-PAGE in three E. coli strains after IPTG induction and further purified by affinity purification on Ni-NTA. The conditions including strain, medium, substrate of ALA synthesize (glycine and succinic acid), and ALA dehydratase inhibitor (levulinic acid) were optimized for attainning the maximum yield of ALA in E. coli. The ALA production was established on E. coli M15, medium 1 supplied with 100mmol/L glycine and 50mmol/L succinic acid, and 40mmol/L levulinic acid. The activity of ALAS was up to 333U/min x mg of protein. Meanwhile, the output of ALA was reached to 5.379g/L, which is the highest yield of ALA up to date by biofermentation. ALA has a variety of agricultural applications not only as an herbicide, insecticide, and growth promoting factor, but also based on its ability to confer salt and cold temperature tolerance in plants. Our recombinant bacteria are of great potential in the production of ALA. Our results offer an easy and simple ALA mass production method and may stimulate the application of ALA in agriculture.