Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is the major apolipoprotein of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and has an important role in the regulation of the stability, lipid transport, and metabolism of HDL particles. To identify novel proteins that are involved in HDL metabolism, we used mature apoA-I (amino acids 25-267) as a bait for the screening of a human liver two-hybrid cDNA library. Among the identified genes, several encoded known proteins, including serum amyloid A(2a) (SAA(2a)), apoC-I, and phosphodiesterase HCAM1 (PDE1A), found to interact with apoA-I. In addition, we have cloned a novel 29 kDa apoA-I interacting protein, which we named AI-BP (apoA-I binding protein). The AI-BP encoding gene, APOA1BP, which is located on chromosome 1q21, is composed of six exons and five introns and spans 2.5 kb. Northern blot analysis demonstrated ubiquitous expression of the APOA1BP mRNA with the highest expression in kidney, heart, liver, thyroid gland, adrenal gland, and testis. AI-BP protein is not detectable in serum of healthy probands, but serum samples of patients with septic syndromes may contain elevated levels of AI-BP. Significant amounts of AI-BP protein are found in cerebrospinal fluid and urine of healthy probands. The stimulation of cells derived from the kidney proximal tubules with apoA-I or HDL induces a concentration-dependent secretion of AI-BP indicating an important role for AI-BP, in the renal tubular degradation or resorption of apoA-I.