Various nano-delivery systems have been designed to deliver synthetic/botanical pesticides for improved bioactivity. However, the enhanced toxicity of nanocarrier-loaded pesticides may injure the natural enemies, and their selective toxicity should be evaluated before the large-scale application. In this context, a star polymer (SPc)-based cyantraniliprole (CNAP) nano-delivery system was constructed, and its selective toxicity was evaluated using pest Frankliniella occidentalis (WFT) and predator Orius sauteri. The amide NH of CNAP could assemble with carbonyl groups or tertiary amines of SPc through hydrogen bonds to form CNAP/SPc complex spontaneously. The above self-assembly decreased the particle size of CNAP from 808 to 299 nm. With the help of SPc, the lethal concentration 50 (LC50) values of CNAP decreased from 99 to 54 mg/L and 230 to 173 mg/L toward WFTs and O. sauteri due to the enhancement of broad-spectrum bioactivity. Interestingly, the toxicity selective ratio (TSR) of CNAP increased from 2.33 to 3.23 with the help of SPc, revealing the higher selectivity of SPc-loaded CNAP. To our knowledge, it was the first successful exploration of the selective toxicity of nanocarrier-loaded pesticides, and the higher selective toxicity of SPc-loaded CNAP was beneficial for alleviating the negative impacts on predators.