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CLOCK Polymorphisms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Further Evidence Linking Sleep and Circadian Disturbances and ADHD

Authors
  • Carpena, Marina Xavier
  • Hutz, Mara H.
  • Salatino-Oliveira, Angélica
  • Polanczyk, Guilherme V.
  • Zeni, Cristian
  • Schmitz, Marcelo
  • Chazan, Rodrigo
  • Genro, Julia P.
  • Rohde, Luis Augusto
  • Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana
Publication Date
Jan 28, 2019
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Circadian and sleep disorders, short sleep duration, and evening chronotype are often present in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). CLOCK, considered the master gene in the circadian rhythm, has been explored by few studies. Understanding the relationship between ADHD and CLOCK may provide additional information to understand the correlation between ADHD and sleep problems. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between ADHD and CLOCK, using several genetic markers to comprehensively cover the gene extension. A total of 259 ADHD children and their parents from a Brazilian clinical sample were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CLOCK locus. We tested the individual markers and the haplotype effects using binary logistic regression. Binary logistic and linear regressions considering ADHD symptoms among ADHD cases were conducted as secondary analysis. As main result, the analysis showed a risk effect of the G-A-T-G-G-C-G-A (rs534654, rs1801260, rs6855837, rs34897046, rs11931061, rs3817444, rs4864548, rs726967) haplotype on ADHD. A suggestive association between ADHD and rs534654 was observed. The results suggest that the genetic susceptibility to circadian rhythm attributed to the CLOCK gene may play an important role on ADHD.

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