Affordable Access

Access to the full text

Clock Drawing Test: A Simple Scoring System for the Accurate Screening of Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

Authors
  • Rakusa, Martin
  • Jensterle, Joze
  • Mlakar, Janez
Type
Published Article
Journal
Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Publisher
S. Karger AG
Publication Date
Jul 23, 2018
Volume
45
Issue
5-6
Pages
326–334
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1159/000490381
PMID: 30036864
Source
Karger
Keywords
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Background/Aim: The Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a valid alternative screening tool to the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and, crucially, it may be completed faster. The aim of our study was to standardize and simplify the CDT scoring system for screening in three common conditions: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mixed dementia (MD). Methods: We included 188 subjects (43 healthy volunteers, 49 patients with MCI, 54 patients with AD, and 42 patients with MD), who performed the MMSE and CDT. The CDT was evaluated using a modified 4-point scoring system. Results: The healthy subjects had the highest median values for the MMSE and CDT, followed by patients with MCI, AD and MD. The optimal cut-off for all patients and each patient group separately was 3 out of 4 points. Sensitivity was 89% for AD, 93% for MD and 83% for all patients, while specificity was 91%. The MMSE produced similar results. In comparison to the MMSE, sensitivity for MCI was significantly higher using the CDT (20 vs. 69%, respectively). Conclusion: A simple, 4-point scoring system may be used as a screening method for fast and accurate detection of cognitive impairment in patients with MCI, AD and MD.

Report this publication

Statistics

Seen <100 times