In this literature review we present analysis of various aspects of the problem of cardiotoxicity of antracyclines used for the treatment of the breast cancer. We consider mechanisms of their cardiotoxic action, role of risk factors, clinical manifestations of acute and chronic cardiotoxicity, and dependence of their severity on treatment duration and drug dose. We give data on contemporary methods of diagnostics of early toxic cardiac effects of antracyclines from the side of cardiovascular system. We also conducted assessment of possibility of prevention of toxic action of antracyclines with the use of combination of different methods including dose sparing regimens and schemes of treatment, combinations of drugs, use of cardioprotectors as well as novel preparations from the antracycline group, possessing lesser cardiotoxicity. Clinical and experimental data on the treatment of manifestations of cardiotoxicity with consideration of pathogenetic mechanisms of their development are given.