Affordable Access

[The clinical use of the GPIIb/IIIa inhibitors eptifibatide and tirofiban in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes of the "non-ST elevation" type].

Authors
  • Galli, M
  • Maggioni, A P
  • Vassanelli, C
  • Tavazzi, L
Type
Published Article
Journal
Italian heart journal. Supplement : official journal of the Italian Federation of Cardiology
Publication Date
Feb 01, 2000
Volume
1
Issue
2
Pages
202–211
Identifiers
PMID: 10731377
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Acute coronary syndromes not associated with ST-segment elevation, i.e. unstable angina and non-Q wave myocardial infarction, represent a heterogeneous group of clinical disorders sharing similar pathogenic mechanisms, clinical presentation and medical management. Current guidelines recommended an early anti-thrombotic and anti-ischemic treatment in these patients, as well as their prompt risk evaluation based on easily available clinical and instrumental data, to identify those subjects at greater risk in whom a more aggressive management is warranted. Despite the association of aspirin, heparin and anti-ischemic drugs, the 30-day rate of death or myocardial infarction remains high (9-15%) in patients with markers of greater risk (i.e. Braunwald class III, ST-segment depression, abnormal creatine kinase or troponin values). Moreover, in patients with acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), complex coronary lesions increase the peri-procedural risk of thrombotic complications. Regardless of the agonist responsible for platelet activation and aggregation, platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor activation is the key factor in thrombosis formation. Several clinical trials in the past few years have documented the beneficial value of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients treated with aspirin and heparin, with a significant reduction in the cumulative end-point of death and/or myocardial infarction at 48-96 hours (odds ratio--OR 0.81, 95% confidence interval--CI 0.71-0.92, p < 0.01). Such therapeutical benefit is still present at 30 days (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.81-0.97, p < 0.001) and 6 months (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.79-0.97, p < 0.001). In patients treated with abciximab, eptifibatide or tirofiban, undergoing early PCI, a remarkable relative reduction in the risk of death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction was shown before PCI (-34%, p < 0.001). The pre-PCI administration of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors is associated with a significant reduction in peri-procedural complications (-41% relative reduction of death or acute myocardial infarction in the 48 hours after PCI, p < 0.001). In this subset of patients the benefit correlates with abnormal pre-PCI values of troponin, a reliable surrogate marker of active thrombosis. The greatest clinical benefit from GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors is expected in patients presenting high-risk features (early post-infarction angina; older age with a history of left ventricular dysfunction or diabetes; heart failure symptoms, ST-segment depression, abnormal troponin, creatine kinase, and C-reactive protein values at admission) as well as in patients with recurrent ischemic attacks and those undergoing early PCI. Although the combination of GP IIb/IIIa inhibition and standard doses of unfractionated heparin is associated with an increased risk of major bleeding, such risk can be remarkably reduced adopting simple technical suggestions.

Report this publication

Statistics

Seen <100 times