This study aimed to assess the clinical characteristics and T-helper 1 (Th1)/Th2 profile of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection in children with bronchiolitis and pneumonia, compared with the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). In September 2013 to August 2014, 335 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children below 14 with bronchiolitis and pneumonia were screened for HRV and 13 other respiratory viruses by PCR or reverse transcription PCR. Interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were detected by multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HRVs were found in 66 cases (19.7%), including 35 bronchiolitis and 31 pneumonia cases. Compared with the RSV alone group, children with pneumonia had more frequent wheezing episodes in HRV (Pa = .001) and HRV + non-RSV (Pb = .002) groups, and fever in the HRV (Pf = .004) and HRV + RSV (Pg = .005) groups. Among patients with bronchiolitis, cases with HRV alone were more likely to present in winter than those with RSV alone (Pi = .010) and HRV + non-RSV (Pj = .014), and less numerous in summer compared with HRV + non-RSV (Ph = .005). Children with HRV alone were more susceptible to have a history of eczema than RSV alone among bronchiolitis (Pc < .001) and pneumonia (Pe = .033) cases. HRV bronchiolitis cases had increased IL-4/IFN-γ and decreased TNF-α/IL-10 ratios, compared with HRV pneumonia counterparts. HRV is a major non-RSV pathogen causing hospitalization in children with bronchiolitis and pneumonia and induces an imbalanced Th1/Th2 response in bronchiolitis. Compared with RSV infection, HRV bronchiolitis and pneumonia differ significantly regarding wheezing episodes, susceptibility to eczema, fever occurrence, and seasonal prevalence. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.