Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a disorder caused by IgG antibodies to the extracellular conformal epitope of the NR1 subunits. This disorder predominantly affects young female with ovarian teratoma;however, any person of any age, unrelated to gender or the presence of tumor, can be affected. This disorder usually follows multistage beginning with prodromal symptoms, followed by psychiatric symptoms, unresponsive state accompanied by intractable dyskinesias, seizure and central hypoventilation. Diversity of clinical spectrum has recently been emphasized based on antibody detection in various disorders, including schizophrenia, epilepsy, CJD, neuromyelitis optica, and HSV encephalitis, but these data must be cautiously interpreted; low serum titers may be false positive or clinically not relevant. This disorder has been regarded as treatment-responsive; however, only a half of the patients respond to the first-line immunotherapy (corticosteroids, immunoglobulins or plasma exchange) or tumor removal, and 19 percent remain highly disabled at 24 months with an estimated morality rate of 7%. In refractory cases early initiation of the second-line immunotherapy (rituximab and/or cyclophosphamide) recommended; however, it is difficult to follow the recommendation due to many issues, among those, off-label use is the major reason that prevents initiation of the second-line immunotherapy in Japan.