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Clinical situations for which 3D printing is considered an appropriate representation or extension of data contained in a medical imaging examination: adult cardiac conditions

  • Ali, Arafat1
  • Ballard, David H.2
  • Althobaity, Waleed3
  • Christensen, Andy4
  • Geritano, Mariah5
  • Ho, Michelle6
  • Liacouras, Peter7
  • Matsumoto, Jane8
  • Morris, Jonathan8
  • Ryan, Justin9
  • Shorti, Rami10
  • Wake, Nicole11
  • Rybicki, Frank J.1
  • Sheikh, Adnan4
  • 1 University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA , Cincinnati (United States)
  • 2 Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA , Saint Louis (United States)
  • 3 King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia , Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)
  • 4 University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada , Ottawa (Canada)
  • 5 Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA , Boston (United States)
  • 6 Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA , Philadelphia (United States)
  • 7 Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA , Washington (United States)
  • 8 Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA , Rochester (United States)
  • 9 Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, CA, USA , San Diego (United States)
  • 10 Intermountain Healthcare, South Jordan, UT, USA , South Jordan (United States)
  • 11 Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA , Bronx (United States)
Published Article
3D Printing in Medicine
Springer International Publishing
Publication Date
Sep 23, 2020
DOI: 10.1186/s41205-020-00078-1
Springer Nature


BackgroundMedical 3D printing as a component of care for adults with cardiovascular diseases has expanded dramatically. A writing group composed of the Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) Special Interest Group on 3D Printing (SIG) provides appropriateness criteria for adult cardiac 3D printing indications.MethodsA structured literature search was conducted to identify all relevant articles using 3D printing technology associated with a number of adult cardiac indications, physiologic, and pathologic processes. Each study was vetted by the authors and graded according to published guidelines.ResultsEvidence-based appropriateness guidelines are provided for the following areas in adult cardiac care; cardiac fundamentals, perioperative and intraoperative care, coronary disease and ischemic heart disease, complications of myocardial infarction, valve disease, cardiac arrhythmias, cardiac neoplasm, cardiac transplant and mechanical circulatory support, heart failure, preventative cardiology, cardiac and pericardial disease and cardiac trauma.ConclusionsAdoption of common clinical standards regarding appropriate use, information and material management, and quality control are needed to ensure the greatest possible clinical benefit from 3D printing. This consensus guideline document, created by the members of the RSNA 3D printing Special Interest Group, will provide a reference for clinical standards of 3D printing for adult cardiac indications.

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