This article reviews the clinical profiles of memory disorders that are commonly encountered on neurorehabilitation units. Memory is comprised of several dissociable processes and is subserved by a distributed network of brain regions. The cognitive and neuroanatomical bases of memory provide the foundation for clinicians to evaluate and treat patients with memory disorders. Memory disorders occur with disparate etiologies including stroke, aneurysms, head injury, encephalitis and anoxia. Recovery of memory function is dependent on several clinical factors such as etiology and lesion location. There is no direct treatment of amnesia, but memory rehabilitation with pharmacotherapy or cognitive remediation is often attempted. The relative strengths and weaknesses of each therapy strategy must be known.