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Clinical Pharmacology of Clazosentan, a Selective Endothelin A Receptor Antagonist for the Prevention and Treatment of aSAH-Related Cerebral Vasospasm

Authors
  • Juif, Pierre-Eric
  • Dingemanse, Jasper
  • Ufer, Mike
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Pharmacology
Publisher
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Feb 04, 2021
Volume
11
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2020.628956
Source
Frontiers
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Pharmacology
  • Review
License
Green

Abstract

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) may lead to cerebral vasospasm and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It represents a major unmet medical need due to few treatment options with limited efficacy. The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and its receptor ETA in the pathogenesis of aSAH-induced vasospasm suggests antagonism of this receptor as promising asset for pharmacological treatment. Clazosentan is a potent ETA receptor antagonist for intravenous use currently under development for the prevention of aSAH-induced cerebral vasospasm. The pharmacokinetics of clazosentan are characterized by an intermediate clearance, a volume of distribution similar to that of the extracellular fluid volume, dose-proportional exposure, an elimination independent of drug-metabolizing enzymes, and a disposition mainly dependent on the hepatic uptake transporter organic anion transport polypeptide 1B1/1B3. In healthy subjects, clazosentan leads to an increase in ET-1 concentration and prevents the cardiac and renal effects mediated by infusion of ET-1. In patients, it significantly reduced the incidence of moderate or severe vasospasm as well as post-aSAH vasospasm-related morbidity and mortality. Clazosentan is well tolerated up to the expected therapeutic dose of 15 mg/h and, in aSAH patients, lung complications, hypotension, and anemia were adverse events more commonly reported following clazosentan than placebo. In summary, clazosentan has a pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, and safety profile suitable to become a valuable asset in the armamentarium of therapeutic modalities to prevent aSAH-induced cerebral vasospasm.

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