5-Fluorocytosine (5FC) is an oral antifungal that is currently used in combination with amphotericin B to treat Cryptococcus neoformans meningoencephalitis. The oral dosing of 5FC could be optimized by the use of a controlled-release (CR) formulation. The objective of the current study was to develop two prototype 5FC-CR formulations and evaluate the single-dose (1,500-mg) serum pharmacokinetic profiles of those formulations relative to the profile of the commercially available, immediate-release 5FC product (Ancobon) by the use of a phase 1, open-label, randomized, three-phase, crossover pharmacokinetic study design. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose was utilized as the rate-controlling matrix to compound the 5FC-CR tablets. The two prototype 5FC-CR formulations demonstrated 80% release at 13.0 and 18.4 h, respectively, whereas the immediate-release product demonstrated 80% release at 0.28 h, as determined in vitro by the United States Pharmacopeia apparatus 2 dissolution method. Five subjects completed all three phases of the study without any adverse events. The mean maximum concentration, the area under the curve from time zero to 24 h, and the area under the curve from time zero to infinity were approximately 50% lower (P < 0.01) with the 5FC-CR formulations than with the immediate-release 5FC product. However, no statistically significant differences in the minimum concentrations at 24 h were noted between the formulations. The gastric absorption profile of 5FC-CR was well predicted by in vitro dissolution. Future exploration of a gastroretentive 5FC-CR formulation could overcome the marked lack of bioequivalence observed in the present study.