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Clinical Pathology, Immunopathology and Advanced Vaccine Technology in Bovine Theileriosis: A Review

Authors
  • Agina, Onyinyechukwu Ada1
  • Shaari, Mohd Rosly
  • Isa, Nur Mahiza Md
  • Ajat, Mokrish
  • Zamri-Saad, Mohd
  • Hamzah, Hazilawati
  • 1 Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria Nsukka, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria
Type
Published Article
Journal
Pathogens
Publisher
MDPI
Publication Date
Aug 25, 2020
Volume
9
Issue
9
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/pathogens9090697
PMID: 32854179
PMCID: PMC7558346
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Theileriosis is a blood piroplasmic disease that adversely affects the livestock industry, especially in tropical and sub-tropical countries. It is caused by haemoprotozoan of the Theileria genus, transmitted by hard ticks and which possesses a complex life cycle. The clinical course of the disease ranges from benign to lethal, but subclinical infections can occur depending on the infecting Theileria species. The main clinical and clinicopathological manifestations of acute disease include fever, lymphadenopathy, anorexia and severe loss of condition, conjunctivitis, and pale mucous membranes that are associated with Theileria -induced immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and/or non-regenerative anaemia. Additionally, jaundice, increases in hepatic enzymes, and variable leukocyte count changes are seen. Theileria annulata and Theileria parva induce an incomplete transformation of lymphoid and myeloid cell lineages, and these cells possess certain phenotypes of cancer cells. Pathogenic genotypes of Theileria orientalis have been recently associated with severe production losses in Southeast Asia and some parts of Europe. The infection and treatment method (ITM) is currently used in the control and prevention of T. parva infection, and recombinant vaccines are still under evaluation. The use of gene gun immunization against T. parva infection has been recently evaluated. This review, therefore, provides an overview of the clinicopathological and immunopathological profiles of Theileria -infected cattle and focus on DNA vaccines consisting of plasmid DNA with genes of interest, molecular adjuvants, and chitosan as the most promising next-generation vaccine against bovine theileriosis.

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