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Clinical and microbiologic investigation of an expedited peri-implantitis dog model: an animal study

  • Seong, Wook Jin1
  • Kotsakis, Georgios2
  • Huh, Jong-Ki3
  • Jeong, Soo Cheol4
  • Nam, Ki Young5
  • Kim, Jong Ryul6
  • Heo, Young Cheul1
  • Kim, Hyeon-Cheol7
  • Zhang, Lei8
  • Evans, Michael D.8
  • Conrad, Heather1
  • Schumacher, Robert J.9
  • 1 University of Minnesota, Department of Restorative Sciences, School of Dentistry, Minneapolis, MN, USA , Minneapolis (United States)
  • 2 UTHealth, Department of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, San Antonio, TX, USA , San Antonio (United States)
  • 3 Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Seoul, South Korea , Seoul (South Korea)
  • 4 West Virginia University, Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Morgantown, WV, USA , Morgantown (United States)
  • 5 Keimyung University, Department of Dentistry, College of Medicine, Daegu, South Korea , Daegu (South Korea)
  • 6 Temple University, Department of Endodontology, Maurice H. Kornberg School of Dentistry, Philadelphia, PA, USA , Philadelphia (United States)
  • 7 Pusan National University, Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Pusan, South Korea , Pusan (South Korea)
  • 8 University of Minnesota, Biostatistical Design and Analysis Center, Clinical and Translational Science Institute, Minneapolis, MN, USA , Minneapolis (United States)
  • 9 University of Minnesota, Center for Translational Medicine, Minneapolis, MN, USA , Minneapolis (United States)
Published Article
BMC Oral Health
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Jul 15, 2019
DOI: 10.1186/s12903-019-0837-y
Springer Nature


BackgroundAnimal studies are pivotal in allowing experimentation to identify efficacious treatment protocols for resolution of peri-implantitis. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize an expedited dog peri-implantitis model clinically, radiographically, and microbiologically.MethodsEight hound dogs underwent extractions (week 0) and implant (3.3 × 8.5 mm) placement with simultaneous surgical defect creation and ligature placement for induction of peri-implantitis (week 10). Ligatures were replaced at 6 weeks (week 16) and removed after 9 weeks (week 19) when supporting bone loss involved approximately 50% of the peri-implant bone. Microbial samples from the defects and healthy control implant sites collected at week 19 were analyzed utilizing a microarray. Clinical measures of inflammation were obtained and radiographic bone loss was measured from periapical radiographs. Radiographic depth and width measurements of bony defect were repeated at weeks 10 (baseline), 16, and 19. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates was used to visualize overall differences in microbial abundance between peri-implantitis and healthy implants.ResultsThis accelerated disease protocol led to intrabony defect creation with a mean depth and width of 4.3 mm and 3.5 mm, respectively after 9 weeks of ligature placement. Microbial identification revealed 59 total bacteria in peri-implant sites, 21 of which were only present in peri-implant sites as compared to healthy controls. Overall microbial beta diversity (microbial between-sample compositional diversity) differed between peri-implantitis and healthy implants (p = 0.009).ConclusionsWithin the limitations of this study, this protocol led to expedited generation of peri-implant defects with a microbial profile indicative of a shift to disease and defect patterns conducive to regenerative treatment. However, the possibility of potential spontaneous resolution of lesions due to the lack of a chronicity interval as compared to chronic disease models need to be further clarified and considered during preclinical peri-implantitis model selection.

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