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Clinical features of genetically characterized types of hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor: a systematic review of qualitative evidence

  • Bork, Konrad1
  • Machnig, Thomas2
  • Wulff, Karin3
  • Witzke, Guenther1
  • Prusty, Subhransu2
  • Hardt, Jochen4
  • 1 Johannes Gutenberg University, Langenbeckstr. 1, Mainz, 55131, Germany , Mainz (Germany)
  • 2 CSL Behring GmbH, Marburg, Germany , Marburg (Germany)
  • 3 Ernst Moritz Arndt University, Greifswald, Germany , Greifswald (Germany)
  • 4 Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany , Mainz (Germany)
Published Article
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Oct 15, 2020
DOI: 10.1186/s13023-020-01570-x
Springer Nature


BackgroundHereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal C1 inhibitor (C1-INH) (HAEnCI) is associated with skin swellings, abdominal attacks, and the risk of asphyxia due to upper airway obstruction. Several different gene mutations linked to the HAE phenotype have been identified. Our aim was to qualitatively assess and describe the clinical differentiators of these genetically identified HAEnCI types. To achieve this, we performed a systematic literature review of patients with angioedema symptoms and a genetically confirmed diagnosis of an HAEnCI type.ResultsA systematic literature search, conducted in March 2020, returned 132 records, 43 of which describe patients with symptoms of angioedema and a genetically confirmed diagnosis of an HAEnCI type. Overall, this included 602 patient cases from 220 families. HAEnCI with a mutation in the coagulation factor XII gene (F12) (HAE-FXII) was diagnosed in 446 patients from 185 families (male:female ratio = 1:10). Estrogens (oral contraceptives, hormonal replacement therapy, and pregnancy) negatively impacted the course of disease in most female patients (252 of 277). Asphyxia occurred in 2 of 446 patients. On-demand and/or long-term prophylaxis treatment included C1-INH concentrates, icatibant, progestins, and tranexamic acid. HAEnCI with a specific mutation in the plasminogen gene (HAE-PLG) was diagnosed in 146 patients from 33 families (male:female ratio = 1:3). Estrogens had a negative influence on the course of disease in the minority of female patients (14 of 62). Tongue swelling was an important clinical feature. Asphyxia occurred in 3 of 146 patients. On-demand treatment with icatibant and C1-INH concentrate and long-term prophylaxis with progestins and tranexamic acid were effective. HAEnCI with a specific mutation in the angiopoietin-1 gene (HAE-ANGPT1) was diagnosed in 4 patients from 1 family and HAEnCI with a specific mutation in the kininogen-1 gene (HAE-KNG1) in 6 patients from 1 family.ConclusionsA number of clinical differentiators for the different types of HAEnCI have been identified which may support clinicians to narrow down the correct diagnosis of HAEnCI prior to genetic testing and thereby guide appropriate treatment and management decisions. However, confirmation of the causative gene mutation by genetic testing will always be required.

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