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Clinical elements for the neuromuscular stimulation and functional electrical stimulation protocols in the practice of neurorehabilitation.

Authors
  • Dimitrijevic, Meta M
  • Dimitrijevic, Milan R
Type
Published Article
Journal
Artificial organs
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2002
Volume
26
Issue
3
Pages
256–259
Identifiers
PMID: 11940027
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

The physicians and their multidisciplinary teams involved in the clinical practice of neurological rehabilitation have more and more opportunities to apply neuromuscular stimulation (NMS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) of peripheral nerves as a part of their daily practice. In this article, we outline clinical protocols of NMS and FES in the following clinical conditions of upper motor neuron dysfunction: to prevent consequences of disuse of the neuromuscular system of the upper motor neuron, to facilitate recovery processes of impaired upper motor neuron functions due to acute and/or subacute neurological conditions, to maintain or enhance the trophic state of the muscle, to modify altered control of muscle tone, to modify altered patterns of automatic and volitional functional movements, to enhance functional movement of the single joint muscle group within intact functional multijoint movement, and to modify altered neurocontrol of posture, locomotion, and skillful movements. We emphasize the importance of understanding the motor control alteration while developing clinical protocols and defining the goals. It is very important to be aware that similar clinical findings and due to the same cause can have different features of residual motor control, and therefore potentials for recovery or modification can be very different.

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