Background: Clinical characteristics and prognosis among combined hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (cHCC-CC) with HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) were inconsistent in previous studies. The aim of this study was to compare postoperative prognosis among cHCC-CC, HCC and ICC, and investigated the prognostic risk factor of cHCC-CC after surgical resection. Methods: A total of 1041 eligible patients with pathological diagnosis of cHCC-CC (n=135), HCC (n=698) and ICC (n=208) were enrolled in this study. Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis were applied for assessing important risk factors. cHCC-CC were further 1:1 matched with HCC and ICC on important clinical risk factors. Survival curves of matched and unmatched cohorts were depicted by Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test. Results: Patients with cHCC-CC had similar rate of sex, age and cirrhosis with HCC ( p< 0.05) and comparable incidence of hepatitis B or C with ICC ( p= 0.197). Patients of cHCC-CC had intermediate prognosis between HCC and ICC, with median overall survival (OS) time of cHCC-CC, HCC and ICC of 20.5 months, 35.7 months and 11.6 months ( p< 0.001). In matched cohorts, the OS of cHCC-CC were worse than HCC ( p< 0.001) but comparable with ICC ( p= 0.06), while the disease-free survival (DFS) of cHCC-CC was worse than HCC but better than ICC ( p< 0.05). And lymph node infiltration and postoperative transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) were independent risk factors of cHCC-CC associated with prognosis. Conclusion: The long term survival of cHCC-CC was worse than HCC but comparable with ICC when matched on albumin level, tumor size, lymph node infiltration, tumor stage and margin. Presence of lymph node infiltration and no postoperative TACE were associated with poor prognosis of cHCC-CC.