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Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Hospitalized and Critically Ill Children and Adolescents with Coronavirus Disease 2019 at a Tertiary Care Medical Center in New York City

Authors
  • Chao, Jerry Y.1
  • Derespina, Kim R.2
  • Herold, Betsy C.3
  • Goldman, David L.3
  • Aldrich, Margaret3
  • Weingarten, Jacqueline2
  • Ushay, Henry M.2
  • Cabana, Michael D.4
  • Medar, Shivanand S.2, 5
  • 1 Department of Anesthesiology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY
  • 2 Division of Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY
  • 3 Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY
  • 4 Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY
  • 5 Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Children's Hospital at Montefiore, Bronx, NY
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Journal of Pediatrics
Publisher
Elsevier Inc.
Publication Date
May 11, 2020
Volume
223
Pages
14–19
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.006
PMID: 32407719
PMCID: PMC7212947
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Objective To describe the clinical profiles and risk factors for critical illness in hospitalized children and adolescents with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Study design Children 1 month to 21 years of age with COVID-19 from a single tertiary care children's hospital between March 15 and April 13, 2020 were included. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Results In total, 67 children tested positive for COVID-19; 21 (31.3%) were managed as outpatients. Of 46 admitted patients, 33 (72%) were admitted to the general pediatric medical unit and 13 (28%) to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Obesity and asthma were highly prevalent but not significantly associated with PICU admission ( P  = .99). Admission to the PICU was significantly associated with higher C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and pro-B type natriuretic peptide levels and platelet counts ( P  < .05 for all). Patients in the PICU were more likely to require high-flow nasal cannula ( P  = .0001) and were more likely to have received Remdesivir through compassionate release ( P  < .05). Severe sepsis and septic shock syndromes were observed in 7 (53.8%) patients in the PICU. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was observed in 10 (77%) PICU patients, 6 of whom (46.2%) required invasive mechanical ventilation for a median of 9 days. Of the 13 patients in the PICU, 8 (61.5%) were discharged home, and 4 (30.7%) patients remain hospitalized on ventilatory support at day 14. One patient died after withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy because of metastatic cancer. Conclusions We describe a higher than previously recognized rate of severe disease requiring PICU admission in pediatric patients admitted to the hospital with COVID-19.

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