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Clinical characteristics and clinical predictors of mortality in hospitalised patients of COVID 19 : An Indian study.

  • Padmaprakash, K V1
  • Vardhan, Vasu2
  • Thareja, Sandeep3
  • Muthukrishnan, J4
  • Raman, Nishant5
  • Ashta, Kuldeep Kumar6
  • Rana, Sandeep7
  • Kishore, Kislay8
  • Nauhwaar, Dheeraj9
  • 1 Senior Advisor (Medicine and Gastroenterologist), Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
  • 2 Commandant, Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
  • 3 Consultant (Medicine) & Brig i/c Adm, Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
  • 4 Consultant & Head (Medicine), Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
  • 5 Internee, Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
  • 6 Senior Advisor (Medicine), Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
  • 7 Graded Specialist (Respirstory Medicine), Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
  • 8 Classified Specialist (Respiratory Medicine), Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
  • 9 Classified Specialist (Medicine), Base Hospital, Delhi Cantt, India. , (India)
Published Article
Medical Journal Armed Forces India
Publication Date
Jul 01, 2021
DOI: 10.1016/j.mjafi.2021.01.009
PMID: 34334900


The rapid spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with high mortality rate necessitates disease characterization and accurate prognostication for prompt clinical decision-making. The aim of this study is to study clinical characteristics and predictors of mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in India. Retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in northern India. All consecutive confirmed hospitalized COVID-19 cases aged 15 years and older from 13 Apr till 31 Aug 2020 are included. Primary end point was 30-day mortality. Of 1622 patients ,1536 cases were valid. Median age was 36 years, 88.3% were men and 58.1% were symptomatic. Fever (37.6%) was commonest presenting symptom. Dyspnea was reported by 15.4%. Primary hypertension (8.5%) was commonest comorbidity, followed by diabetes mellitus (6.7%). Mild, moderate, and severe hypoxemia were seen in 3.4%, 4.3%, and 0.8% respectively. Logistic regression showed greater odds of moderate/severe disease in patients with dyspnea, hypertension, Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD), and malignancy. Seventy six patients died (4.9%). In adjusted Cox proportional hazards model for mortality, patients with dyspnea (hazard ratio [HR]: 14.449 [5.043-41.402]), altered sensorium (HR: 2.762 [1.142-6.683]), Diabetes Mellitus (HR: 1.734 [1.001-3.009]), malignancy (HR:10.443 [4.396-24.805]) and Chronic Liver Disease (CLD) (HR: 14.432 [2.321-89.715]) had higher risk. Rising respiratory rate (HR: 1.098 [1.048-1.150]), falling oxygen saturation (HR: 1.057 per unit change 95% CI: 1.028-1.085) were significant predictors. Analysis suggests that age, dyspnea, and malignancy were associated with both severe disease and mortality. Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Liver Disease were associated with increased the risk of fatal outcome. Simple clinical parameters such as respiratory rate and oxygen saturation are strong predictors and with other risk factors at admission can be effectively used to triage patients. © 2021 Director General, Armed Forces Medical Services. Published by Elsevier, a division of RELX India Pvt. Ltd.

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