Since the 2015 Paris Agreement, climate change – and wider environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues – have risen to board-level on the corporate agenda. Under increasing pressure from institutional investors, companies are reformulating their strategies for a climate-constrained world. A novel aspect of the emerging corporate response is that executive compensation is being linked to climate targets. At the world’s largest energy companies, climate metrics now make up 8% of CEO’s short-term incentive plans. This paper explains the case for corporate climate action, summarizes the use to date of climate-linked management incentives, and presents a framework for understanding their benefits and design challenges.