The genetic system in children with cerebral palsy was studied by the method of registration of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in peripheral blood lymphocytes and erythrocytes. A high level of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei in the peripheral blood cells was revealed. A significant reduction of the integral antioxidant capacity of the blood and plasma was detected by coulombometric titration with electrogenerated bromine in patients with all forms of cerebral palsy. Aneugenic and antianeugenic effects of glutamate were studied in experiments on mice. Biphasic effect of glutamate was revealed: it exhibited aneugenic effect in high doses and antianeugenic in low doses. Impairment of the genome stability in children with cerebral palsy is believed to be caused by increased generation of endomutagens under conditions of disease and reduction of the genome antimutagenic defense system.