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A cis-replication element functions in both orientations to enhance replication of Turnip crinkle virus.

Authors
  • Sun, Xiaoping1
  • Simon, Anne E
  • 1 Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, Microbiology Building, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Virology
Publication Date
Aug 15, 2006
Volume
352
Issue
1
Pages
39–51
Identifiers
PMID: 16757010
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

Turnip crinkle virus (TCV) (family Tombusviridae, genus Carmovirus) is a positive-sense RNA virus containing a 4054-base genome. Previous results indicated that insertion of Hairpin 4 (H4) into a TCV-associated satellite RNA enhanced replication 6-fold in vivo (Nagy, P., Pogany, J., Simon, A. E., 1999. EMBO J. 18:5653-5665). A detailed structural and functional analysis of H4 has now been performed to investigate its role in TCV replication. RNA structural probing of H4 in full-length TCV supported the sequence forming hairpin structures in both orientations in vitro. Deletion and mutational analyses determined that H4 is important for efficient accumulation of TCV in protoplasts, with a 98% reduction of genomic RNA levels when H4 was deleted. In vitro transcription using p88 [the TCV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase] demonstrated that H4 in its plus-sense orientation [H4(+)] caused a nearly 2-fold increase in RNA synthesis from a core hairpin promoter located on TCV plus-strands. H4 in its minus-sense orientation [H4(-)] stimulated RNA synthesis by 100-fold from a linear minus-strand promoter. Gel mobility shift assays indicated that p88 binds H4(+) and H4(-) with equal affinity, which was substantially greater than the binding affinity to the core promoters. These results support roles for H4(+) and H4(-) in TCV replication by enhancing syntheses of both strands through attracting the RdRp to the template.

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