Background/Aims: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are key regulators in the development and progression of human cancers, however its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumorigenesis is not well understood. The aim of this study is to identify the expression level of circPVT1 in NSCLC and further investigated its functional relevance with NSCLC progression both in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Quantative real-time PCR was used for the measurement of circPVT1 in NSCLC specimens and cell lines. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH) assay was used for the identification of sublocation of circPVT1 in NSCLC cells. Bioinformatics analysis, luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) were performed to verify the binding of c-Fos at circPVT1 promoter region, and the direct interaction between circPVT1 and miR-125b. Gain- or loss-function assays were performed to evaluate the effects of circPVT1 on cell proliferation and invasion. Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays were performed to detect the protein levels involved in E2F2 pathway. Results: We found that circPVT1 was upregulated in NSCLC specimens and cells. The transcription factor c-Fos binded to the promoter region of circPVT1, resulting in the overexpression of circPVT1 in NSCLC. Knockdown of circPVT1 suppressed NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and increased apoptosis. In addition, circPVT1 mediated NSCLC progression via the regulation of E2F2 signaling pathway. More importantly, circPVT1 was predominantly abundant in the cytoplasm of NSCLC cells, and circPVT1 could serve as a competing endogenous RNA to regulate E2F2 expression and tumorigenesis in a miR-125b-dependent manner, which is further verified by using an in vivo xenograft model. Conclusion: circPVT1 promotes NSCLC cell growth and invasion, and may serve as a promising therapeutic target for NSCLC patients. Therefore, silence of circPVT1 could be a future direction to develop a novel treatment strategy.