The development of hour changes in the protein content of the retinal ganglionic cells was studied in 1, 7, 14, 19, and 30 day old ground squirrels using cytophotometry. Such rhythms were also compared in sexually mature active and hibernating animals. In ground squirrels, as well as in the other immature born mammals, the recording of hour rhythms of the protein content of the ganglionic neurones becomes possible only after the morphological maturation of retina, from the 19th day of postnatal ontogenesis. During hibernation, no hour rhythms of the protein content of the retina ganglionic cells were recorded in ground squirrels. A conclusion has been drawn that the hour rhythms of protein metabolism can serve as an index of morphological maturity of the tissue and its functional activity.