Based on their mechanism of action, the most frequently used ocular hypertensive agents, the beta-blockers, cannot be assumed to reduce IOP during sleep. The need for drugs that reduce IOP around-the-clock is underscored, however, by the fact that inadequate nocturnal ocular perfusion pressure is considered to be one of the likely causes of glaucomatous optic neuropathy especially in some cases of normal tension glaucoma. The studies reviewed here demonstrate that latanoprost, a new ocular hypotensive prostaglandin F2 alpha analogue, applied once a day at a concentration of 0.005%, maintains a statistically highly significant IOP reduction around-the-clock. The magnitude of this IOP reduction was found to be essentially identical during the day and at night, both in patients maintained on timolol and in those not receiving other glaucoma medication. Latanoprost-induced IOP reduction was also found to be associated with increased uveoscleral outflow in normotensive volunteers, both during the day and at night. These circadian studies suggest that this new ocular hypotensive agent can be expected to be particularly useful for the medical management of some forms of glaucoma, such as normal tension glaucoma, when the cause of the glaucomatous damage cannot be linked specifically to diurnal IOP abnormalities.